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Seismic Building Codes in the Himalaya Region. Questions
& Answers related to the 2015 Nepal
Earthquake. (report, May 2016). 37 pages. 3.3 MB .
Where do these earthquakes occur? What is the purpose of the
seismic code and the relation with the building code? What are the
differences between seismic codes of other countries? What variables
exist in a seismic code? What technical and/or administrative
measurements need to be taken to make the code effective? How does this
information translate to a country as Nepal ?
Technical Working Paper #12 on Earthquake Retrofitting
Non-Engineered Low-Rise Buildings. Including non-engineered retrofitting of
traditional Pamiri Houses in Pakistan and Tajikistan. 5.3 MB, 50 pages. Examples of retrofitting of stone constructed
houses in the Himalayas of Pakistan, using simple construction techniques.
resistant masonry; practical guide by Sjoerd Nienhuys and Carlos Naranjo,
Spanish. Mamposteria Reforzada, INEN, 22.4MB, 53pag. Explanation of the earthquake resistant
building code of Ecuador
with sketches. 1978.
Guia Popular de Construccion Sismoresistente INEN, Ing Sjoerd
Nienhuys & Ing Carlos Naranjo, 4MB 85
pages. Spanish. Ecuador, simplified advice on house
design based on internationally available documentation. Basic information on
earthquake resistant construction methods, site-selection, use of reinforced
concrete and wall masonry methods, floor and roof diaphragm's, ample
detailed advice on reinforced masonry construction for simple housing, based on
international documentation. Guia de Practica. INEN, Ing. Sjoerd Nienhuys and Ing.
Carlos Naranjo, 23 MB, 55 pages. Spanish, ample illustrated.
Galvanised Wire-mesh Reinforcement (GWR) for
traditional dressed stone construction houses in the Himalayas. Galvanised
Wire Mesh Reinforcement is explained in this paper. 4.2 MB, 35 pages Oct.
2010 The use of galvanised
wire wall reinforcement reduces the need for high cement concentration in
dressed stone masonry and lowers the transport and construction costs in remote
Design for Primary Mountain Schools in Remote Areas 6MB,45 pag. making them lightweight, thus better earthquake resistant. The buildings had an
improved internal climate through solar heat intake, double glass and thermal
roof/wall insulation. 2008.
the Kashmir earthquake (2005) basic findings and recommendation are presented. .Mission
Report, Earthquake damage Kashmir, including details about GWR. 3.3 MB, 24 pages. From
the post earthquake surveys it was concluded than about half of the building
failures were caused by inadequate foundations and constructions on non-stabilized
slopes. Poor reinforced concrete design and non-adherence to the earthquake
code proofed here to be a major cause for fatal building collapse.
Earthquakes and Concrete Construction Failures Exposed by
Earthquakes, examples of design mistakes. 3.8MB, 19 pages
A few remarkable design mistakes resulted in large seismic damage after a minor
earthquake in the village of Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Poor design, poor building
sequence and corruption are involved.
A-Frame Timber School Chair Design. 14 pages, 1.68 MB (Oct. 2013) HA-doc. Strong (Timber) School Chair for Schools not yet
Seismically Strengthened. Simple to construct from straight timber
sections. A few dozen in a classroom will hold up a collapsing roof to allow
evacuation of school children.